The triatomic compound titanium dioxide, TiO2, was detected toward red
VY Canis Majoris by
Kamiński and co-workers, as reported in 2013.
The detection was based upon initial observations made in 2010 with the
Submillimeter Array located on
and then confirmed with the IRAM
Plateau de Bure
interferometer in 2012.
Each facility consists of 6 radiotelescopes. Over two dozen lines from the two surveys were assigned to
TiO2. The detection in VY Canis Majoris was further confirmed with
ALMA in two papers by De Beck and co-workers published in
De Beck also reported a tentative detection of TiO2 toward the oxygen-rich, red giant
Mira variable star
R Doradus in