JULY 2018: This is a list of molecules that have been found in protoplanetary/circumstellar disks, such as TW Hydrae (above left) and HL Tauri (above right). Due to the small number of species detected in protoplanetary disks to date, the list below includes isotopomeric variants that have been detected.

For background about chemistry in protoplanetary disks, see the archived presentation by Öberg et al. or the 2013 review paper by Henning & Semenov.


YEAR
SPECIES
CITATION
SOURCE AND LINES
1993 13CO
13C-CO
A Rotating Gaseous Disk around the T Tauri Star GM Aurigae
D. W. Koerner, A. I. Sargent, and S. V. W. Beckwith. Icarus 106:2-10 (1993).
GM Aurigae
J = 2-1 (220.4 GHz)
1997 CN
cyano
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
1-0
2-1
1997 HCN
hydrogen cyanide
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
1-0
3-2
1997 HNC
hydrogen isocyanide
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
???
1997 CS
carbon monosulfide
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
3-2
5-4
1997 HCO+
protonated CO
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
1-0
3-2
1997 N2H+
protonated N2
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
1-0
1997 H2CO
formaldehyde
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
GG Tauri, DM Tauri
202-101
212-111
312-212
1997 C2H
ethynyl
Chemistry of protosolar-like nebulae: The molecular content of the DM Tau and GG Tau disks
A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, and M. Guélin. A&A 317:L55-L28 (1997).
DM Tauri
1-0
2001 CO
carbon monoxide
H2 and CO emisision from disks around T Tauri and Herbig Ae pre-main sequence stars and from debris disks around young stars: Warm and cold circumstellar gas
W. F. Thi, E. F. van Dishoeck, G. A. Blake, G. J. van Zadelhoff, J. Horn, E. E. Becklin, V. Mannings, A. I. Sargent, M. F. van den Ancker, A. Natta, and J. Kessler. ApJ 561:1074-1094 (2001).
Multiple sources
3-2
6-5
2003 DCO+
D-HCO+
Detection of DCO+ in a circumstellar disk
E. F. van Dishoeck, W.-F. Thi, and G.-J. van Zadelhoff. A&A 400:L1-L4 (2003).
TW Hydrae
J = 5-4 (360.169 GHz)
2008 DCN
D-HCN
Resolving the Chemistry in the Disk of TW Hydrae. I. Deuterated Species
C. Qi, D. J. Wilner, Y. Aikawa, G. A. Blake, and M. R. Hogerheijde. ApJ 681:1396-1407.
TW Hydrae
J = 3-2 (217.23863 GHz)
2011 H2O
water
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR DEC 2011
Detection of the Water Reservoir in a Forming Planetary System
M. R. Hogerheijde, E. A. Bergin, C. Brinch, L. I. Cleeves, J. K. J. Fogel, G. A. Blake, C. Dominik, D. C. Lis, G. Melnick, D. Neufeld, O. Panić, J. C. Pearson, L. Kristensen, U. A. Yıldız, and E. F. van Dishoeck. Science 334:338-340 (2011).
TW Hydrae
110-101 (ortho)
111-100 (para)
2011 H13CO+
13C-HCO+
The Ionization Fraction in the DM Tau Protoplanetary Disk
K. I. Öberg, C. Qi, D. J. Wilner, and S. M. Andrews. ApJ 743:152 (2011).
(first detection?)
DM Tau
J = 3-2 (260.255 GHz)
2012 HC3N
cyanoacetylene
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR APR 2011
Chemistry in Disks. VII. First Detection of HC3N in Protoplanetary Disks
E. Chapillon, A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, V. Piétu, V. Wakelam, F. Hersant, F. Gueth, T. Henning, R. Launhardt, K. Schreyer, and D. Semenov. ApJ 756:58 (2018).
MWC 480...
(16-15) (145.560 GHz)
(12-11) (109.173 GHz)
(10-9) (90.978 GHz)
2013 HD
D-H2
An old disk still capable of forming a planetary system
E. A. Bergin, L. I. Cleeves, U. Gorti, K. Zhang, G. A. Blake, J. D. Green, S. M. Andrews, N. J. Evans II, T. Henning, K. Öberg, K. Pontoppidan, C. Qi, C. Salyk, and E. F. van Dishoeck. Nature 493:644-646 (2013).
TW Hya
1-0 (~112 μm)
2013 SO
sulfur monoxide
A sensitive survey for 13CO, CN, H2CO, and SO in the disks of T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars
S. Guilloteau, E. Di Folco, A. Dutrey, M. Simon, N. Grosso, and V. Piétu. A&A 549, A92 (2013).
Chemistry in disks. X. The molecular content of protoplanetary disks in Taurus
S. Guilloteau, L. Reboussin, A. Dutrey, E. Chapillon, V. Wakelam, V. Piétu; E Di Folco, D. Semonov, and T. Henning. A&A 592:A125 (2016).
Multiple sources
54-43 (206.176062 GHz)
65-54 (251.825816 GHz)
67-56 (261.843756 GHz)
2013 c-C3H2
cyclo-
propenylidene

ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR AUG 2005
First Detection of c-C3H2 in a Circumstellar Disk
C. Qi, K. I. Öberg, D. J. Wilner, and K. A. Rosenfeld. ApJL 765:L14 (2013).
HD 163296
33,0-22,1 (216.279 GHz)
61,6-50,5/60,6-51,5 (217.822 GHz)
51,4-42,3 (217.940 GHz)
2015 CH3CN
methyl cyanide
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR SEP 2008
The comet-like composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides
K. I. Öberg, V. V. Guzmán, K. Furuya, C. Qi, Y. Aikawa, S. M. Andrews, R. Loomis, and D. J. Wilner. Nature 520:198-200 (2015).
MWC 480
140-130 (257.5274 GHz)
141-131 (257.5224 GHz)
2015 N2D+
D+-N2
Detection of N2D+ in a protoplanetary disk
J. Huang and K. I. Öber. ApJL 809:L26 (2015).
AS 209
3-2 (231.39868 MHz)
2015 H13CN
13C-HCN
Cyanide photochemistry and nitrogen fractionation in the MWC 480 disk
V. V. Guzmán, K. I. Öberg, R. Loomis, and C. Qi. ApJ 814:53 (2015).
MWC 480
3-2 (259.0118 GHz)
2015 HC15N
15N-HCN
Cyanide photochemistry and nitrogen fractionation in the MWC 480 disk
V. V. Guzmán, K. I. Öberg, R. Loomis, and C. Qi. ApJ 814:53 (2015).
MWC 480
3-2 (258.1571 GHz)
2016 CH3OH
methanol
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR APR 2006
First Detection of Gas-phase Methanol in a Protoplanetary Disk
C. Walsh, R. A. Loomis, K. I. Öberg, M. Kama, M. L. R. van't Hoff, T. J. Millar, Y. Aikawa, E. Herbst, S. L. Widicus Weaver, and H. Nomura. ApJL 832:L10 (2016).
TW Hydrae
7 lines
2016 NH3
ammonia
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR FEB 2010
First detection of gas-phase ammonia in a planet-forming disk. NH3, N2H+, and H2O in the disk around TW Hydrae
V. N. Salinas, M. R. Hogerheijde, E. A. Bergin, L. I. Cleeves, C. Brinch, G. A. Blake, D. C. Lis, G. J. Melnick, O. Panić, J. C. Pearson, L. Kristensen, U. A. YIJldIJz, and E. F. van Dishoeck. A&A 591:A122 (2016).
TW Hydrae
10-00 (572.49817 GHz)
2017 C15N
15N-CN
Direct evidence of multiple reservoirs of volatile nitrogen in a protosolar nebula analog
P. Hily-Blant, V. Magalhaes, J. Kastner, A. Faure, T. Forveille, and C. Qi. A&A 603:L6 (2017).
TW Hydrae
3-2 with hyperfine
2018 t-HCOOH
trans-formic acid
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR MAY 2004
First Detection of the Simplest Organic Acid in a Protoplanetary Disk
C. Favre, D. Fedele, D. Semenov, S. Parfenov, C. Codella, C. Ceccarelli, E. A. Bergin, E. Chapillon, L. Testi, F. Hersant, B. Lefloch, F. Fontani, G. A. Blake, L. I. Cleeves, C. Qi, K. R. Schwarz, and V. Taquet. ApJL 862, L2 (2018).
TW Hydrae
6(1-6)5(1,5) (129 GHz)
2018 H2S
hydrogen sulfide
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR NOV 2009
First detection of H2S in a protoplanetary disk. The dense GG Tauri A ring
N. T. Phuong, E. Chapillon, L. Majumdar, A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, V. Piétu, V. Wakelam, P. N. Diep, Y.-W. Tang, T. Beck, and J. Bary. A&A 616, L5 (2018).
GG Tauri
11,0-10,1
2019 13C17O
13C-,17O-CO
The First Detection of 13C17O in a Protoplanetary Disk: A Robust Tracer of Disk Gas Mass
A. S. Booth, C. Walsh, J. D. Ilee, S. Notsu, C. Qi, H. Nomura, and E. Akiyama. ApJL 882:L31 (2019).
HD 163296
blend of 14 hyperfine transitions of
J=3-2(321.851-321.852 GHz)

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Maintained by DE Woon
Updated 16 September 2019