IRAS 16293-2422 is a well-studied class 0, low-mass protostellar system in the ρ Ophiuchus cloud complex. Aside from the fact that it is a binary system with A and B protostars, IRAS 16293-2422 is thought to be similar to the development of our own solar system.

Many astromolecules have been detected toward this source since the mid-1980s. Multiple detections of species are given, and the earliest citation may not be the first detection of a given compound. This page is an effort to be reasonably thorough about the collective study of a source rather than a list of initial detections. Common and rare isotopomers are collected together here, and some non-detections are also noted (in green font). Tentative detectections are in italics. Recent studies are highlighted in blue.

On this page you will find efforts to expand the inventories of the object as a whole or of each subsource. You will also see examples where a known molecule is used to trace some physical property of the source, such as the temperature of certain regions or infall and outflow of material.

(Note: IRAS refers to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, the first space-based infrared observatory.)


YEAR PUBLICATION SPECIES
1986 Spectroscopic Evidence for Infall around an Extraordinary IRAS Source in Ophiuchus
C. K. Walker, C. J. Lada, E. T. Young, P. R. Maloney, and B. A. Wilking. ApJ 309, L47-L51 (1986).
C32S (carbon monosulfide)
C34S (carbon monosulfide)
1986 Resolution of Structure in the Protostellar Source IRAS 16293-2422
L. J. Mundy, B. A. Wilking, and S. T. Myers. ApJ 311, L75-L79 (1986).
13CO (carbon monoxide)
1988 An Unusual Outflow around IRAS 16293-2422
C. K. Walker, C. J. Lada, E. T. Young, and M. Margulis. ApJ 332, 335-345 (1988).
CO (carbon monoxide)
13CO (carbon monoxide)
1990 Observations of the Dense Gas in the IRAS 16293-2422 Outflow System
C. K. Walker, J. E. Carlstron, J. H. Bieging, C. J. Lada, and E. T. Young. ApJ 364, 173-177 (1990).
C32S (carbon monosulfide)
C34S (carbon monosulfide)
1994 Molecular Abundances and Low-mass Star Formation. I. Si- and S-bearing Species toward IRAS 16293-2422
G. A. Blake, E. F. van Dishhoeck, D. J. Jansen, T. D. Groesbeck, and L. G. Mundy. ApJ 428, 680-692 (1994).
CO (carbon monoxide)
CS (carbon monosulfide)
SO (sulfur monoxide)
SiO (silicon monoxide)
SiS (silicon monosulfide)
HCS+ (protonated CS)
OCS (carbonyl sulfide)
H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
& isotopologues
1995 Molecular Abundances and Low-mass Star Formation. II. Organic and Deuterated Species toward IRAS 16293-2422
E. F. van Dishoeck, G. A. Blake, D. J. Jansen, and T. D. Groesbeck. ApJ 447, 760-782 (1995).
HCO+ (protonated CO)
HCN (hydrogen cyanide)
HNC (hydrogen isocyanide)
HC3N (cyanoacetylene)
H2CO (formaldehyde)
CH3OH (methanol)
CH3CN (methyl cyanide)
CH3CCH (propyne)
H2CCO (ketene)
HNCO (isocyanid acid)
CN (cyano radical)
CCH (ethynyl radical)
c-C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene)
& isotopologues
2003 The Hot Core around the Low-Mass Protostar IRAS 16293-2422: Scoundrels Rule!
S. Cazaux, A. G. G. M. Tielens, C. Ceccarelli, A. Castets, V. Wakelam, E. Caux, B. Parise, and D. Teyssier. ApJ 593, L51-L55 (2003).
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether)
HCOOH (formic acid)
CH3COOH (acetic acid)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde)
CH3CN (methyl cyanide)
C2H5CN (ethyl cyanide)
CH3CCH (propyne)
2005 HDO abundance in the envelope of the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422
B. Parise, E. Caux, A. Castets, C. Ceccarelli, L. Loinard, A. G. G. M. Tielens, A. Bacmann, S. Cazaux, C. Comito, F. Helmich, C. Kahane, P. Schilke, E. van Dishoeck, V. Wakelam, and A. Walters. A&A 431, 547-554 (2005).
HDO (water)
2006 IRAS 16293-2422: Evidence for Infall onto a Counterrotating Protostellar Accretion Disk
A. J. Remijan and J. M. Hollis. ApJ 640, 842-848 (2006).
C2H5CN (ethyl cyanide)
DCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
HCOOH (formic acid)
SiO (silicon monoxide)
2007 Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water
S. B. Charnley, C. Ceccarelli, S. D. Rodgers, J. R. Pardo, B. Parise, J. Cernicharo, and G. R. Davis. ApJ 659, L137-L140 (2007).
D2O (water)
2007 Arcsecond-Resolution Submillimeter HCN Imaging of the Binary Protostar IRAS 16293-2422
S. Takakuwa, N. Ohashi, T. L. Bourke, N. Hirano, P. T. P. Ho, J. K. Jørgensen, Y.-J. Kuan, D. J. Wilner, and S. C. C. Yeh. ApJ 662, 431-442 (2007).
HCN (hydrogen cyanide)
2008 The CO Molecular Outflows of IRAS 16293-2422 Probed by the Submillimeter Array
S. C. C. Yeh, N. Hirano, T. L. Bourke, P. T. P. Ho, C.-F. Lee, N. Ohashi, and S. Takakuwa. ApJ 675, 454-463 (2008).
CO (carbon monoxide)
13CO (carbon monoxide)
2008 An interferometric study of the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422: small scale organic chemistry
S. E. Bisschop, J. K. Jørgensen, T. L. Bourke, S. Bottinelli, and E. F. van Dishoeck. A&A 488, 959-968 (2008).
HNC (hydrogen isocyanide)
CH3CN (methyl cyanide)
H2CCO (ketene)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde)
CH3COOH (acetic acid)
2010 TIMASSS: the IRAS16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey: Tentative detection of deuterated methyl formate (DCOOCH3)
K. Demyk, S. Bottinelli, E. Caux, C. Vastel1, C. Ceccarelli, C. Kahane, and A. Castets. A&A 517, A17 (2010).
DCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
2010 First detection of ND in the solar-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422
A. Bacmann, E. Caux, P. Hily-Blant, B. Parise, L. Pagani, S. Bottinelli, S. Maret, C. Vastel, C. Ceccarelli, J. Cernicharo, T. Henning, A. Castets, A. Coutens, E. A. Bergin, G. A. Blake, N. Crimier, K. Demyk, C. Dominik, M. Gerin, P. Hennebelle, C. Kahane, A. Klotz, G. Melnick, P. Schilke, V. Wakelam, A. Walters, A. Baudry, T. Bell, M. Benedettini, A. Boogert, S. Cabrit, P. Caselli, C. Codella, C. Comito, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, A. Fuente, P. F. Goldsmith, F. Helmich, E. Herbst, T. Jacq, M. Kama, W. Langer, B. Lefloch, D. Lis, S. Lord, A. Lorenzani, D. Neufeld, B. Nisini, S. Pacheco, J. Pearson, T. Phillips, M. Salez, P. Saraceno, K. Schuster, X. Tielens, F. F. S. van der Tak, M. H. D. van der Wiel, S. Viti, F. Wyrowski, H. Yorke, A. Faure, A. Benz, O. Coeur-Joly, A. Cros, R. Güsten, and L. Ravera. A&AM 521, L42 (2010).
ND (imidogen)
2010 Nitrogen hydrides in the cold envelope of IRAS 16293-2422
P. Hily-Blant, S. Maret, A. Bacmann, S. Bottinelli, B. Parise, E. Caux, A. Faure, E. A. Bergin, G. A. Blake, A. Castets, C. Ceccarelli, J. Cernicharo, A. Coutens, N. Crimier, K. Demyk, C. Dominik, M. Gerin, P. Hennebelle, T. Henning, C. Kahane, A. Klotz, G. Melnick, L. Pagani, P. Schilke, C. Vastel, V. Wakelam, A. Walters, A. Baudry, T. Bell, M. Benedettini, A. Boogert, S. Cabrit, P. Caselli, C. Codella, C. Comito, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, A. Fuente, P. F. Goldsmith, F. Helmich, E. Herbst, T. Jacq, M. Kama, W. Langer, B. Lefloch, D. Lis, S. Lord, A. Lorenzani, D. Neufeld, B. Nisini, S. Pacheco, T. Phillips, M. Salez, P. Saraceno, K. Schuster, X. Tielens, F. van der Tak, M. H. D. van der Wiel, S. Viti, F. Wyrowski, and H. Yorke. A&A 521, L52 (2010).
NH (imidogen radical)
NH2 (amidogen radical)
NH2 (ammonia)
2010 A comprehensive survey of hydrogen chloride in the Galaxy
R. Peng, H. Yoshida, R. A. Chamberlin, T. G. Phillips, D. C. Lis, and M. Gerin. ApJ 723, 218 (2010).
HCl (hydrogen chloride)
2011 TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics
E. Caux, C. Kahane, A. Castets, A. Coutens, C. Ceccarelli, A. Bacmann, S. Bisschop, S. Bottinelli, C. Comito, F. P. Helmich, B. Lefloch, B. Parise, P. Schilke, A. G. G. M. Tielens, E. van Dishoeck, C. Vastel, V. Wakelam, and A. Walters. A&A 532, A23 (2011).
CO (carbon monoxide)
SO (sulfur monoxide)
H2CO (formaldehyde)
SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
CH3OH (methanol)
HCO+ (protonated CO)
CS (carbon monosulfide)
HCN (hydrogen cyanide)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde)
CH3CN (methyl cyanide)
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
OCS (carbonyl sulfide)
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
SiO (silicon monoxide)
HNC (hydrogen isocyanide)
H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
c-C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene)
CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether)
CH3CCH (propyne)
CCH (ethynyl radical)
HNCO (isocyanic acid)
CN (cyano radical)
HCS+ (protonated CS)
H2CCO (ketene)
NH3 (ammonia)
NO (nitric oxide)
C2S (dicarbon sulfide)
PN (phosphorus nitride)
H2O (water)
SN (sulfur nitride)
C4H (butadiynyl radical)
c-C3H (cyclopropenylidenyl radical)
& isotopologues
2012 Detection of OD towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422
B. Parise, F. Du, F.-C. Liu, A. Belloche, H. Wiesemeyer, R. Güsten, K. M. Menten, H.-W. Hübers, and B. Klein. A&A 542, L5 (2012).
OD (hydroxyl radical)
2012 Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA
J. K. Jørgensen, C. Favre, S. E. Bisschop, T. L. Bourke, E. F. van Dishoeck, and M. Schmalzl. ApJ 757, L4 (2012).
HCOCH2OH (glycolaldehyde)
2013 ALMA CO J = 6-5 observations of IRAS 16293-2422. Shocks and entrainment
L. E. Kristensen, P. D. Klaassen, J. C. Mottram, M. Schmalzl, and M. R. Hogerheijde. A&A 549, L6 (2013).
CO (carbon monoxide)
2013 Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422. The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view
M. V. Persson, J. K. Jørgensen, and E. F. van Dishoeck. A&A 549, L3 (2013).
H218O (water)
2013 ALMA 690 GHz Observations of IRAS 16293-2422B: Infall in a Highly Optically Thick Disk
L. A. Zapata, L. Loinard, L. F. Rodríguez, V. Hern&aascute;ndez-Hern&aascute;ndez, S. Takahashi, A. Trejo, and B. Parise. ApJ 764, L14 (2013).
H13CN (hydrogen cyanide)
HC15N (hydrogen cyanide)
CH3OH (methanol)
2013 Detection of Formamide, the Simplest but Crucial Amide, in a Solar-type Protostar
C. Kahane, C. Ceccarelli, A. Faure, and E. Caux. ApJ 763, L38 (2013).
NH2CHO (formamide)
2013 ALMA and VLA observations of the outflows in IRAS 16293-2422
L. Loinard, L. A. Zapata, L. F. Rodríguez, G. Pech, C. J. Chandler, C. L. Brogan, D. J. Wilner, P. T. P. Ho, B. Parise, L. W. Hartmann, Z. Zhu, S. Takahashi, and A. Trejo. MRRASL 430, L10-L14 (2013).
CO (carbon monoxide)
2013 Mono-deuterated dimethyl ether: laboratory spectrum up to 1 THz. Torsion-rotational spectrum within the vibrational ground-state for the symmetric and asymmetric conformers and first detection in IRAS 16293-2422
C. Richard, L. Margulès, E. Caux, C. Kahane, C. Ceccarelli, J.-C. Guillemin, R. A. Motiyenko, C. Vastel, and P. Groner. A&A 552, A117 (2013).
CH2DOCH3 (dimethyl ether)
2013 Heavy water stratification in a low-mass protostar
A. Coutens, C. Vastel, S. Cazaux, S. Bottinelli, E. Caux, C. Ceccarelli, K. Demyk, V. Taquet, and V. Wakelam. A&A 553, A75 (2013).
o-D2O (water)
2014 On the Origin of the Molecular Outflows in IRAS 16293-2422
J. M. Girart, R. Estalella, A. Palau, J. M. Torrelles, and R. Rao. ApJ 780, L11 (2014).
CO (carbon monoxide)
SiO (silicon monoxide)
C34S (carbon monosulfide)
2014 CH in absorption in IRAS 16293-2422
S. Bottinelli, V. Wakelam, E. Caux, C. Vastel, Y. Aikawa, and C. Ceccarelli. MNRAS 441, 1964-1973 (2014).
CH (methylidyne)
2014 Dynamical Structure of the Inner 100 AU of the Deeply Embedded Protostar IRAS 16293-2422
C. Favre, J. K. Jørgensen, D. Field, C. Brinch, S. E. Bisschop, T. L. Bourke, M. R. Hogerheijde, and W. W. F. Frieswijk. ApJ 790, 55 (2014).
C17O (carbon monoxide)
C34S (carbon monosulfide)
2014 H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars
S. Brünken, O. Sipilä, E. T. Chambers, J. Harju, P. Caselli, O. Asvany, C. E. Honingh, T. Kamiński, K. M. Menten, J. Stutzki, and S. Schlemmer. Nature 516, 219-221 (2014).
H2D+ (protonated H2)
2015 The ALMA Band 9 receiver - Design, construction, characterization, and first light
A. M. Baryshev, R. Hesper, F. P. Mena, T. M. Klapwijk, T. A. van Kempen, M. R. Hogerheijde, B. D. Jackson, J. Adema, G. J. Gerlofsma, M. E. Bekema, J. Barkhof, L. H. R. de Haan-Stijkel, M. van den Bemt, A. Koops, K. Keizer, C. Pieters, J. Koops van het Jagt, H. H. A. Schaeffer, T. Zijlstra, M. Kroug, C. F. J. Lodewijk, K. Wielinga, W. Boland, M. W. M. de Graauw, E. F. van Dishoeck, H. Jager, and W. Wild. A&A 577, A127 (2015).
H13CN (hydrogen cyanide)
HC15N (hydrogen cyanide)
& others
2016 The sulfur depletion problem: upper limits on the H2S2, HS2•, and S2 gas-phase abundances toward the low-mass warm core IRAS 16293-2422
R. Martín-Doménech, I. Jiménez-Serra, G. M. Muñoz Caro, H. S. P. Müller, A. Occhiogrosso, L. Testi, P. M. Woods, and S. Viti. A&A 585, A112 (2016).
C17O (carbon monoxide)
SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
HDCO (formaldehyde)
CH3OH (methanol)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde)
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether)
2016 Detection of CH3SH in protostar IRAS 16293-2422
L. Majumdar, P. Gratier, T. Vidal, V. Wakelam, J.-C. Loison, K. M. Hickson, and E. Caux. MNRAS 458, 1859-1865 (2016).
CH3SH (methyl mercaptan)
2016 The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of deuterated formamide and deuterated isocyanic acid in the interstellar medium
A. Coutens, J. K. Jørgensen, M. H. D. van der Wiel, H. S. P. Müller, J. M. Lykke, P. Bjerkeli, T. L. Bourke, H. Calcutt, M. N. Drozdovskaya, C. Favre, E. C. Fayolle, R. T. Garrod, S. K. Jacobsen, N. F. W. Ligterink, K. I. Öberg, M. V. Persson, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 590, L6 (2016).
NH2CDO (formamide)
NHDCHO (formamide)
DNCO (isocyanic acid)
2016 Infalling-Rotating Motion and Associated Chemical Change in the Envelope of IRAS 16293-2422 Source A Studied with ALMA
Y. Oya, N. Sakai, A. López-Sepulcre, Y. Watanabe, C. Ceccarelli, B. Lefloch, C. Favre, and S. Yamamoto. ApJ 824, 88 (2016).
OCS (carbonyl sulfide)
CH3OH (methanol)
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
2016 The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA
J. K. Jørgensen, M. H. D. van der Wiel, A. Coutens, J. M. Lykke, H. S. P. Müller, E. F. van Dishoeck, H. Calcutt, P. Bjerkeli, T. L. Bourke, M. N. Drozdovskaya, C. Favre, E. C. Fayolle, R. T. Garrod, S. K. Jacobsen, K. I. Öberg, M. V. Persson, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 595, A117 (2016).
HCOCH2OH (glycoloaldehyde)
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
CH3COOH (acetic acid)
HO(CH2)2OH (ethylene glycol)
2016 On the Origin of C4H and CH3OH in Protostellar Envelopes
J. E. Lindberg, S. B. Charnley, and M. A. Cordiner. ApJ 833, L14 (2016).
C4H (butadiynyl radical)
CH3OH (methanol)
2017 Externally Heated Protostellar Cores in the Ophiuchus Star-forming Region
J. E. Lindberg, S. B. Charnley, J. K. Jørgensen, M. A. Cordiner, and P. Bjerkeli. ApJ 835, 3 (2017).
H2CO (formaldehyde)
c-C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene)
2017 History of the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422 as told by the cyanopolyynes
A. Jaber Al-Edhari, C. Ceccarelli, C. Kahane, S. Viti, N. Balucani, E. Caux, A. Faure, B. Lefloch, F. Lique, E. Mendoza, D. Quenard, and L. Wiesenfeld. A&A 597, A40 (2017).
HC3N (cyanoacetylene)
DC3N (cyanoacetylene)
HC5N (cyanodiacetylene)
2017 The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of ethylene oxide, acetone and propanal toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422
J. M. Lykke, A. Coutens, J. K. Jørgensen, M. H. D. van der Wiel, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, P. Bjerkeli, T. L. Bourke, H. Calcutt, M. N. Drozdovskaya, C. Favre, E. C. Fayolle, S. K. Jacobsen, K. I. Öberg, M. V. Persson, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 597, A53 (2017).
c-C2H4O (ethylene oxide)
CH3COCH3 (acetone)
C2H5CHO (propanal)
2017 Detection of Interstellar Ortho-D2H+ with SOFIA
J. Harju, O. Sipilä, S. Brünken, S. Schlemmer, P. Caselli, M. Juvela, K. M. Menten, J. Stutzki, O. Asvany, T. Kamiński, Y. Okada, and R. Higgins. ApJ 840, 63 (2017).
o-D2H+ (protonated H2)
2017 A study of singly deuterated cyclopropenylidene c-C3HD in the protostar IRAS 16293-2422
L. Majumdar, P. Gratier, I. Andron, V. Wakelam, and E. Caux. MNRAS 467, 3525-3532 (2017).
c-C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene)
c-C3HD (cyclopropenylidene)
2017 The ALMA-PILS survey: detection of CH3NCO towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 and laboratory constraints on its formation
N. F. W. Ligterink, A. Coutens, V. Kofman, H. S. P. Müller, R. T. Garrod, H. Calcutt, S. F. Wampfler, J. K. Jørgensen, H. Linnartz, and E. F. van Dishoeck. MNRAS 469, 2219-2229 (2017).
Detection of methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO) in a solar-type protostar
R. Martín-Doménech, V. M. Rivilla, I. Jiménez-Serra, D. Quénard, L. Testi, and J. Martín-Pintado. MNRAS 469, 2230-2234 (2017).
CH3NCO (methyl isocyanate)
2017 Protostellar and cometary detections of organohalogens
E. C. Fayolle, K. I. Öberg, J. K. Jørgensen, K. Altwegg, H. Calcutt, H. S. P. Müller, M. Rubin, M. H. D. van der Wiel, P. Bjerkeli, T. L. Bourke, A. Coutens, E. F. van Dishoeck, M. N. Drozdovskaya, R. T. Garrod, N. F. W. Ligterink, M. V. Persson, S. F. Wampfler & the ROSINA team. Nature Astron 1, 702-708 (2017).
CH3Cl (methyl chloride)
ASTROMOLECULE OF THE MONTH FOR JAN 2019
2018 Chemical and Physical Picture of IRAS 16293-2422 Source B at a Sub-arcsecond Scale Studied with ALMA
Y. Oya, K. Moriwaki, S. Onishi, N. Sakai, A. López-Sepulcre, C. Favre, Y. Watanabe, C. Ceccarelli, B. Lefloch, and S. Yamamoto. ApJ 854, 96 (2018).
OCS (carbonyl sulfide)
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
CH3OH (methanol)
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
2018 The ALMA-PILS Survey: Formaldehyde deuteration in warm gas on small scales toward IRAS 16293-2422 B
M. V. Persson, J. K. Jørgensen, H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, E. F. van Dishoeck, V. Taquet, H. Calcutt, M. H. D. van der Wiel, T. L. Bourke, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 610, A54 (2018).
H2CO (formaldehyde)
HDCO (formaldehyde)
H213CO (formaldehyde)
D2CO (formaldehyde)
H2C18O (formaldehyde)
H2C17O (formaldehyde)
D213CO (formaldehyde)
2018 First detection of cyanamide (NH2CN) towards solar-type protostars
A. Coutens, E. R. Willis, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, T. L. Bourke, H. Calcutt, M. N. Drozdovskaya, J. K. Jørgensen, N. F. W. Ligterink, M. V. Persson, G. Stéphan, M. H. D. van der Wiel, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 612, A107 (2018).
NH2CN (cyanamide)
2018 The ALMA-PILS survey: the sulphur connection between protostars and comets: IRAS 16293-2422 B and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
M. N. Drozdovskaya, E. F van Dishoeck, J. K Jørgensen, U. Calmonte, M. H. D. van der Wiel, A. Coutens, H. Calcutt, H. S. P. Müller, P. Bjerkeli, M. V. Persson, S. F. Wampfler, and K. Altwegg. MNRAS 476, 4949-4964 (2018).
SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
SO (sulfur monoxide)
OCS (carbonyl sulfide)
OC33S (carbonyl sulfide)
CS (carbon monosulfide)
C36S (carbon monosulfide)
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
CH3SH (methyl mercaptan)
& other isotopologues
2018 Detection of HOCO+ in the protostar IRAS 16293-2422
L. Majumdar, P. Gratier, V. Wakelam, E. Caux, K. Willacy, and M. E. Ressler. MNRAS 477, 525-530 (2018).
HOCO+ (protonated CO2)
2018 The ALMA-PILS survey: complex nitriles towards IRAS 16293-2422
H. Calcutt, J. K. Jørgensen, H. S. P. Müller, L. E. Kristensen, A. Coutens, T. L. Bourke, R. T. Garrod, M. V. Persson, M. H. D. van der Wiel, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 616, A90 (2018).
CH3CN (methyl cyanide)
C2H5CN (ethyl cyanide)
C2H3CN (vinyl cyanide)
HC3N (cyanoacetylene)
2018 The ALMA-PILS survey: first detection of methyl isocyanide (CH3NC) in a solar-type protostar
H. Calcutt, M. R. Fiechter, E. R. Willis, H. S. P. Müller, R. T. Garrod, J. K. Jørgensen, S. F. Wampfler, T. L. Bourke, A. Coutens, M. N. Drozdovskaya, N. F. W. Ligterink, and L. E. Kristensen. A&A 617, A95 (2018).
CH3NC (methyl isocyanide)
2018 Tracing the cold and warm physico-chemical structure of deeply embedded protostars: IRAS 16293-2422 vs. VLA 1623-2417
N. M. Murillo, E. F. van Dishoeck, M. H. D. van der Wiel, J. K. Jørgensen, M. N. Drozdovskaya, H. Calcutt, and D. Harsono. A&A 617, A120 (2018).
DCO+ (protonated CO)
N2H+ (protonated N2)
N2D+ (protonated N2)
c-C3H2 (cyclopropenylidene)
CCH (ethynyl radical)
2018 Exploring the Origins of Earth's Nitrogen: Astronomical Observations of Nitrogen-bearing Organics in Protostellar Environments
T. S. Rice, E. A. Bergin, J. K. Jørgensen, and S. F. Wampfler. ApJ 866, 156 (2018).
HCN (hydrogen cyanide)
2018 The formation of peptide-like molecules on interstellar dust grains
N. F. W. Ligterink, J. Terwisscha van Scheltinga, V. Taquet, J. K. Jørgensen, S. Cazaux, E. F. van Dishoeck, and H. Linnartz. MNRAS 480, 3628-3643 (2018).
CH3NHCHO (N-methylformamide)
CH3CONH2 (acetamide)
2018 The ALMA-PILS survey: Stringent limits on small amines and nitrogen-oxides towards IRAS 16293-2422B
N. F. W. Ligterink, H. Calcutt, A. Coutens, L. E. Kristensen, T. L. Bourke, M. N. Drozdovskaya, H. S. P. Müller, S. F. Wampfler, M. H. D. van der Wiel, E. F. van Dishoeck, and J. K. Jørgensen. A&A 619, A28 (2018).
CH2NH (methanimine)
N2O (nitrous oxide)
NO (nitric oxide)
2018 Millimeter-wave spectroscopy and modeling of 1,2-butanediol. Laboratory spectrum in the 59.6-103.6 GHz region and comparison with the ALMA archived observations
A. Vigorito, C. Calabrese, S. Melandri, A. Caracciolo, S. Mariotti, A. Giannetti, M. Massardi, and A. Maris. A&A 619, A140 (2018).
HOCH2CHOHC2H5 (1,2-butanediol)
2018 Methyl cyanide (CH3CN) and propyne (CH3CCH) in the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422
I. Andron, P. Gratier, L. Majumdar, T. H. G. Vidal, A. Coutens, J.-C. Loison, and V. Wakelam. MNRAS 481, 5651-5659 (2018).
CH3CN (methyl cyanide)
CH3CCH (propyne)
2018 The ALMA-PILS survey: isotopic composition of oxygen-containing complex organic molecules toward IRAS 16293-2422B
J. K. Jørgensen, H. S. P. Müller, H. Calcutt, A. Coutens, M. N. Drozdovskaya, K. I. Öberg, M. V. Persson, V. Taquet, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 620, A170 (2018).
D- and/or 13C-substituted:
H2CCO (ketene)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde)
HCOOH (formic acid)
C2H5OH (ethanol)
2019 Deuterated methyl mercaptan (CH3SD): Laboratory rotational spectroscopy and search toward IRAS 16293-2422 B
O. Zakharenko, F. Lewen, V. V. Ilyushin, M. N. Drozdovskaya, J. K. Jørgensen, S. Schlemmer, and H. S. P. Müller. A&A 621, A114 (2019).
CH3SD (methyl mercaptan)
2019 First ALMA maps of HCO, an important precursor of complex organic molecules, towards IRAS 16293-2422
V. M. Rivilla, M. T. Beltrán,, A. Vasyunin, P. Caselli, S. Viti, F. Fontani, and R. Cesaroni. MNRAS 483, 806-823 (2019).
HCO (formyl radical)
2019 First detection of the pre-biotic molecule glycolonitrile (HOCH2CN) in the interstellar medium
S. Zeng, D. Quénard, I. Jiménez-Serra, J. Martín-Pintado, V. M Rivilla, L. Testi, and R. Martín-Doménech. MNRASL 484, L43-L48 (2019).
HOCH2CN (glycolonitrile)
2019 The ALMA-PILS survey: First detection of nitrous acid (HONO) in the interstellar medium
A. Coutens, N. F. W. Ligterink, J.-C. Loison, V. Wakelam, H. Calcutt, M. N. Drozdovskaya, J. K. Jørgensen, H. S. P. Müller, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 623, L13 (2019).
trans-HONO (nitrous acid)
2019 The ALMA-PILS survey: the first detection of doubly deuterated methyl formate (CHD2OCHO) in the ISM
S. Manigand, H. Calcutt, J. K. Jørgensen, V. Taquet, H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, S. F. Wampfler, N. F. W. Ligterink, M. N. Drozdovskaya, L. E. Kristensen, M. H. D. van der Wiel, and T. L. Bourke. A&A 623, A69 (2019).
HCOOCHD2 (methyl formate)
2019 Laboratory spectroscopic study of the 15N isotopomers of cyanamide, H2NCN, and a search for them toward IRAS 16293-2422 B
A. Coutens, O. Zakharenko, F. Lewen, J. K. Jórgensen, S. Schlemmer, and H. S. P. Müller. A&A 623, A93 (2019).
NH2C15N (cyanamide)
15NH2CN (cyanamide)
2019 Astrophysical detections and databases for the mono deuterated species of acetaldehyde CH2DCOH and CH3COD
L. H. Coudert, L. Margulès, C. Vastel, R. Motiyenko, E. Caux, and J.-C. Guillemin. A&A 624, A70 (2019).
CH2DCHO (acetaldehyde)
CH3CDO (acetaldehyde)
2019 The ALMA-PILS survey: gas dynamics in IRAS 16293-2422 and the connection between its two protostars
M. H. D. van der Wiel, S. K. Jacobsen, J. K. Jørgensen, T. L. Bourke, L. E. Kristensen, P. Bjerkeli, N. M. Murillo, H. Calcutt, H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, M. N. Drozdovskaya, C. Favre, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 626, A93 (2019).
CO (carbon monoxide)
H2CO (formaldehyde)
HCN (hydrogen cyanide)
CS (carbon monosulfide)
SiO (silicon monoxide)
CCH (ethynyl radical)
2019 The ALMA-PILS survey: propyne (CH3CCH) in IRAS 16293-2422
H. Calcutt, E. R. Willis, J. K. Jørgensen, P. Bjerkeli, N. F. W. Ligterink, A. Coutens, H. S. P. Müller, R. T. Garrod, S. F. Wampfler, and M. N. Drozdovskayla. A&A 631, A137 (2019).
CH3CCH (propyne)
2020 Temperature profiles of young disk-like structures. The case of IRAS 16293A
M. L. R. van 't Hoff, E. F. van Dishoeck, J. K. Jørgensen, and H. Calcutt. A&A 633, A7 (2020).
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
2020 The ALMA-PILS survey: inventory of complex organic molecules towards IRAS 16293-2422 A
S. Manigand, J. K. Jørgensen, H. Calcutt, H. S. P. Müller, N. F. W. Ligterink, A. Coutens, M. N. Drozdovskaya, E. F. van Dishoeck, and S. F. Wampfler. A&A 635, A48 (2020).
CH3OH (methanol)
HCOOCH3 (methyl formate)
CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether)
H2CO (formaldehyde)
C2H5OH (ethanol)
HCOOH (formic acid)
H2CCO (ketene)
HNCO (isocyanic acid)
CH3CHO (acetaldehyde)
c-C2H4O (ethylene oxide)
CH3COCH3 (acetone)
CH3COOH (acetic acid)
CH2(OH)CHO (hydroxyacetaldehyde)
NH2CHO (formamide)
HO(CH2)2OH (ethylene glycol)
C2H5CHO (propanal)
C2H5OCH3 (ethyl methyl ether)
CH3OCH2OH (methoxymethanol)
& isotopologues
2020 Orbital and Mass Constraints of the Young Binary System IRAS 16293-2422 A
M. J. Maureira, J. E. Pineda, D. M. Segura-Cox, P. Caselli, L. Testi, G. Lodato, L. Loinard, and A. Hernández-Gómez. ApJ 897, 59 (2020).
CS (carbon monosulfide)
HNCO (isocyanic acid)
NH2CHO (formamide)
HCOOH (formic acid)
2020 First detection of NHD and ND2 in the interstellar medium - Amidogen deuteration in IRAS 16293-2422
M. Melosso, L. Bizzocchi, O. Sipilä, B. M. Giuliano, L. Dore, F. Tamassia, M.-A. Martin-Drumel, O. Pirali, E. Redaelli, and P. Caselli. A&A 641, A153 (2020).
NHD (amidogen)
ND2 (amidogen)
2020 Detection of hydroxyacetone in protostar IRAS 16293-2422 B
Y. Zhou, D.-H. Quan, X. Zhang, and S.-L. Qin. Res Astron Astrophys 20, 125 (2020).
CH3COCH2OH (hydroxyacetone)
2020 Substructures in the Disk-forming Region of the Class 0 Low-mass Protostellar Source IRAS 16293-2422 Source A on a 10 au Scale
Y. Oya and S. Yamamoto. ApJ 904, 182 (2020).
C17O (carbon monoxide)
H2CS (thioformaldehyde)
2021 The ALMA-PILS survey: first detection of the unsaturated 3-carbon molecules Propenal (C2H3CHO) and Propylene (C3H6) towards IRAS 16293-2422 B
S. Manigand, A. Coutens, J.-C. Loison, V. Wakelam, H. Calcutt, H. S. P. Müller, J. K. Jørgensen, V. Taquet, S. F. Wampfler, T. L. Bourke, B. M. Kulterer, E. F. van Dishoeck, M. N. Drozdovskaya, and N. F. W. Ligterink. A&A 645, A53 (2021).
C2H3CHO (propenal)
C3H6 (propylene)

A summary of detections toward IRAS 16293-2422 by M. N. Drozdovskaya et al. (MNRAS 490, 50, 2019) was very helpful for building this page.


Maintained by DE Woon
Updated 2 February 2021